The AO Surgery Reference
The AO Surgery Reference is a powerful online resource for the management of a vast variety of fractures. It is based on current clinical principles, practices, and available evidence. It is designed to support your day-to-day treatment planning, learning, and teaching.
Read more on the AO Surgery Reference below or visit our FAQ page!
The orthopedic trauma section provides free access to fracture management in:
- Adult fractures
- Pediatric fractures
- Periprosthetic fractures of the hip and knee
The craniomaxillofacial (CMF) section covers the following topics:
- Congenital deformities
All CMF trauma sections and the modules on the reconstruction of the facial nerve and nose are accessible to all users. The other specific topic areas are accessible to AO CMF members only.
The Spine section offers free access to the following topics:
- Deformities (scoliosis, Scheuermann kyphosis, and spondylolisthesis)
- Tumors (metastatic and primary)
The veterinary section contains content on fracture management in the horse, dog, and cat. Most anatomical regions are exclusively AO VET members only. The following anatomical regions are accessible to all users:
- Horse: phalanges
- Dog: femoral shaft
- Cat: femoral shaft
The orthopedic trauma section provides free access to the management of periprosthetic fractures of the hip and knee modules.
Arthroplasty is covered in selected anatomical regions around joints (eg, proximal and distal humerus, and proximal femur).
Benefits for residents
Accelerate your learning curve!
- Get ready for surgery. Review procedures and approaches before you enter the operating room. Anytime, anywhere.
- Prepare for case presentation or case discussion.
- Achieve your learning goals.
We prepared a sample checklist to aid you in your treatment planning.
Get your checklist for success here!
Benefits for practitioners
Join the experience of our users worldwide!
- Compare treatment options and decide what’s appropriate for your patient.
- Plan your patient’s treatment.
- Use the step-by-step approach when communicating with your staff.
- Make use of the illustrations when engaging your patients in their treatment.
- Sharpen your skills prior to performing surgery.
- Explore and make use of new features.
Benefits for surgeon educators
- Use the content to educate your residents and course participants.
- Use the AO Surgery Reference’s image collection—with more than 30,000 surgical illustrations to choose from—to illustrate your presentations and teaching materials.
What makes AO Surgery Reference different?
- From start to finish—and beyond, it describes the complete fracture management process, from diagnosis to aftercare for all fractures of a specific anatomical region.
- State-of-the-art content addressing a global audience: The AO Surgery Reference’s high-quality content has undergone a rigorous peer-review and editorial process.
- Always up to date: Introduced in 2006, the AO Surgery Reference has been continuously expanded and revised.
- Unique collection of illustrations: Over 30,000 surgical illustrations—available for free download—take you through each step of the procedures and approaches.
- Widely recognized: The AO Surgery reference has earned multiple awards and is recommended by leading institutions worldwide.
How it works: the AO Surgery Reference in five easy steps
- Choose your specialty and anatomical region using the skeleton overview.
- Select the fracture type for your case.
- Decide on the optimal treatment according to the indications.
- Get the treatment plan with approach, patient preparation, and pearls and pitfalls of the procedure.
- Follow the step-by-step instructions for a successful surgery, including pre- and postoperative care.
- The content structure primarily follows the AO/OTA Fracture and Dislocation Classification.
- The content can be accessed through the navigation or the powerful and easy-to-use search function.
- The layout of AO Surgery Reference in a browser adapts to the size of your screen and the app makes it easy for mobile users to access.
Download the app!
The AO Surgery Reference has a gallery of over 30'000 unique surgical illustrations. Watch the video to find out how these are created.
News and updates
What is new?
- Adult trauma: Proximal femur (revision)
- Adult trauma: Midfoot, Metatarsals, Toes (revision)
- Pediatric trauma: Distal tibia and fibula (new)
- Intraoperative imaging (elbow, hip, knee, ankle)
What is coming up?
- Adult trauma: Hand modules (revision)
- Pediatric trauma: Proximal tibia (new)
- Pediatric trauma: Tibia shaft (new)
- Periprosthetic fractures of the shoulder (new)
- Intraoperative imaging wrist (new)
- Spine: Primary spine tumors
- Spine: Trauma classification