• 2022

    Schwarz EM. What Are the Immune Responses That Allow Us to Live With Incurable Bone Infection, and How Can They Be Augmented to Improve Outcomes After Prosthetic Joint Infection? J Bone Miner Res. 2022 May;37(5):824-5. Epub 2022/04/19.

    Ren Y, Xue T, Rainbolt J, Bentley KLM, Galloway CA, Liu Y, et al. Efficacy of Bisphosphonate-Conjugated Sitafloxacin in a Murine Model of S. aureus Osteomyelitis: Evidence of "Target & Release" Kinetics and Killing of Bacteria Within Canaliculi. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022;12:910970. Epub 2022/07/12.

    Morita Y, Saito M, Rangel-Moreno J, Franchini AM, Owen JR, Martinez JC, et al. Systemic IL-27 administration prevents abscess formation and osteolysis via local neutrophil recruitment and activation. Bone Res. 2022 Aug 26;10(1):56. Epub 2022/08/27.

    Masters EA, Ricciardi BF, Bentley KLM, Moriarty TF, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G. Skeletal infections: microbial pathogenesis, immunity and clinical management. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2022 Jul;20(7):385-400. Epub 2022/02/17.

    Sherchand SP, Adhikari RP, Muthukrishnan G, Kanipakala T, Owen JR, Xie C, et al. Evidence of Neutralizing and Non-Neutralizing Anti-Glucosaminidase Antibodies in Patients With S. Aureus Osteomyelitis and Their Association With Clinical Outcome Following Surgery in a Clinical Pilot. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022;12:876898. Epub 2022/08/05.

    Kong P, Ren Y, Yang J, Fu W, Liu Z, Li Z, et al. Relapsed boyhood tibia polymicrobial osteomyelitis linked to dermatophytosis: a case report. BMC Surg. 2022 May 4;22(1):156. Epub 2022/05/06.

  • 2021

    de Mesy Bentley KL, Galloway CA, Muthukrishnan G, Echternacht SR, Masters EA, Zeiter S, Schwarz EM, Leckenby JI (2021) Emerging electron microscopy and 3D methodologies to interrogate Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in murine models. J Orthop Res. 2021 Feb;39(2):376-88. Epub 2020/12/31. doi: 10.1002/jor.24968.

    Fu W, He W, Ren Y, Li Z, Liu J, Liu Y, Xie Z, Xu J, Bi Q, Kong M, Lee CC, Daiss JL, Muthukrishnan G, Owen JR, Kates SL, Peng J, Xie C (2021) Distinct expression trend of signature antigens of Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis correlated with clinical outcomes. J Orthop Res. 2021 Feb;39(2):265-73. Epub 2020/12/19. doi: 10.1002/jor.24961.

    Masters EA, Hao SP, Kenney HM, Morita Y, Galloway CA, de Mesy Bentley KL, Ricciardi BF, Boyce BF, Schwarz EM, Oh I (2021) Distinct vasculotropic versus osteotropic features of S. agalactiae versus S. aureus implant-associated bone infection in mice. J Orthop Res. 2021 Feb;39(2):389-401. Epub 2020/12/19. doi: 10.1002/jor.24962.

    Metsemakers WJ, Zalavras C, Schwarz EM, Chen AF, Trampuz A, Moriarty TF (2020) Antimicrobial Resistance, the COVID-19 pandemic, and lessons for the orthopaedic community. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2021 Jan 6;103(1):4-9. Epub 2020/12/02. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.20.01214.

    Morita Y, Masters EA, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G (2021) Interleukin-27 and its diverse effects on bacterial infections. Front Immunol. 2021;12: 678515. Epub 2021/06/04. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.678515.

    Morgenstern M, Erichsen C, Militz M, Xie Z, Peng J, Stannard J, Metsemakers WJ, Schaefer D, Alt V, Søballe K, Nerlich M, Buckley RE, Blauth M, Suk M, Leung F Barla JD, Yukata K, Qing B, Kates SL (2021) The AO trauma CPP bone infection registry: Epidemiology and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bone infection. J Orthop Res. 2021 Jan;39(1):136-46. Epub 2020/07/29. doi: 10.1002/jor.24804.

    Muthukrishnan G, Wallimann A, Rangel-Moreno J, Bentley KLM, Hildebrand M, Mys K, Kenney HM, Sumrall ET, Daiss JL, Zeiter S, Richards RG, Schwarz EM, Moriarty TM (2021) Humanized mice exhibit exacerbated abscess formation and osteolysis during the establishment of implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. Front Immunol. 2021;12:651515. Epub 2021/04/06. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.651515.

  • 2020

    Adjei-Sowah E, Peng Y, Weeks J, Jonason JH, de Mesy Bentley KL, Masters E, Yugo Morita Y, Muthukrishnan G, Cherian P, Hu E,  McKenna  CE, Ebetino FH, Sun S,  Schwarz EM, Xie C (2021) Development of bisphosphonate-conjugated antibiotics to overcome pharmacodynamic limitations of local therapy: initial results with carbamate linked sitafloxacin and tedizolid. Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2021/07/03. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10060732

    Kates SL, Owen JR, Beck CA, Xie C, Muthukrishnan G, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM (2020) Lack of Humoral Immunity Against Glucosaminidase Is Associated with Postoperative Complications in Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: November 4, 2020 - Volume 102 - Issue 21 - p 1842-1848. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.20.00029.

    Kates SL, Hurni S, Chen MS (2020) Development and challenges in setting up an international bone infection registry. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2020 Jun;140(6):741-749. doi: 10.1007/s00402-019-03303-7.

    Hao SP, Masters EA, Ninomiya MJ, Beck CA, Schwarz EM, Daiss JL, Oh I (2020) Species-Specific Immunoassay Aids Identification of Pathogen and Tracks Infectivity in Foot Infection. Foot Ankle Int. 2020 Nov 9:1071100720965136. Epub 2020/11/10. doi: 10.1177/1071100720965136.

    Kates SL, Hurni S, Chen MS (2020) Development and challenges in setting up an international bone infection registry. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2020 Jun;140(6):741-9. Epub 2019/11/09. doi: 10.1007/s00402-019-03303-7.

    Kates SL, Owen JR, Beck CA, Xie C, Muthukrishnan G, Daiss JL, Schwarz  EM (2020) Lack of humoral immunity against glucosaminidase is associated with postoperative complications in Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020 Nov 4;102(21):1842-8. Epub 2020/08/29. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.20.00029

    Lee CC, Southgate RD, Jiao C, Gersz E, Owen JR, Kates SL, Beck CA, Xie C, Daiss JL, Post V, Moriarty TF, Zeiter S, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G (2020) Deriving a dose and regimen for anti-glucosaminidase antibody passive-immunisation for patients with Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. Eur Cell Mater. 2020 Jan 31;39:96-107. Epub 2020/02/01.doi: 10.22203/eCM.v039a06.

    Masters EA, de Mesy Bentley KL, Gill AL, Hao SP, Galloway CA, Salminen AT, Guy DR, McGrath JL, Awad HA, Gill SR, Schwarz EM (2020) Identification of Penicillin Binding Protein 4 (PBP4) as a critical factor for Staphylococcus aureus bone invasion during osteomyelitis in mice. PLoS Pathog. 2020 Oct 22;16(10):e1008988. Epub 2020/10/23. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008988.

    Metsemakers WJ, Morgenstern M, Senneville E, Borens O, Govaert GAM, Onsea J, Depypere M, Richards RG, Trampuz A, Verhofstad MHJ, Kates SL, Raschke M, McNally MA, Obremskey WT, Fracture-Related Infection (FRI) group (2020) General treatment principles for fracture-related infection: recommendations from an international expert group. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2020 Aug;140(8):1013-27. Epub 2019/10/30. doi: 10.1007/s00402-019-03287-4.

    Muthukrishnan G, Beck CA, Owen JR, Xie C, Kates SL, Daiss JL (2020) Serum antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus can prognose treatment success in patients with bone infections. J Orthop Res. 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020/12/17. doi: 10.1002/jor.24955.

    Muthukrishnan G, Soin S, Beck CA, Grier A, Brodell JD Jr, Lee CC, Ackert-Bicknell CL,  Eun-Hyung Lee F, Schwarz EM, Daiss JL (2020) A Bioinformatic Approach to Utilize a Patient's Antibody-Secreting Cells against Staphylococcus aureus to Detect Challenging Musculoskeletal Infections. Immunohorizons. 2020 Jun 22;4(6):339-51. Epub 2020/06/24. doi: 10.4049/immunohorizons.2000024.

    Nishitani K, Ishikawa M, Morita Y, Yokogawa N, Xie C, de Mesy Bentley KL, Ito H, Kates SL, Daiss JL,  Schwarz EM (2020)  IsdB antibody-mediated sepsis following S. aureus surgical site infection. JCI Insight. 2020 Oct 2;5(19). Epub 2020/10/03. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.141164.

    Noll C, Nasruddin-Yekta A, Sternisek P, Weig M, Groß U, Schilling AF, Beil FT, Bader O( 2020). Rapid direct detection of pathogens for diagnosis of joint infections by MALDI-TOF MS after liquid enrichment in the BacT/Alert blood culture system. PLOS ONE 15(12):e0243790. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243790.

    Ricciardi BF, Muthukrishnan G, Masters EA, Kaplan N, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM (2020) New developments and future challenges in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of prosthetic joint infection. J Orthop Res. 2020 Jan 22. Epub 2020/01/23.doi: 10.1002/jor.24595.

    Sulovari A, Ninomiya MJ, Beck CA, Ricciardi BF, Ketonis C, Mesfin A,   Kaplan NB,  Soin SP, McDowell SM, Mahmood B,  Daiss JL, Schwarz EM,  Oh I (2020) Clinical utilization of species-specific immunoassays for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in orthopedic infections. J Orthop Res. 2020 Dec 4. Epub 2020/12/05. doi: 10.1002/jor.24935.

    Tomizawa T, Ishikawa M, Bello-Irizarry SN, de Mesy Bentley KL, Ito H, Kates SL, Daiss JL, Beck C, Matsuda S, Schwarz EM, Nishitani K (2020) Biofilm Producing Staphylococcus epidermidis (RP62A Strain) Inhibits Osseous Integration Without Osteolysis and Histopathology in a Murine Septic Implant Model. J Orthop Res. 2020 Apr;38(4):852-60. Epub 2019/11/07.doi: 10.1002/jor.24512.

  • 2019

    Masters EA, Salminen AT, Begolo S, Luke EN, Barrett SC, Overby CT, Gill AL, de Mesy Bentley KL, Awad HA, Gill SR, Schwarz EM, McGrath JL (2019) An in vitro platform for elucidating the molecular genetics of S. aureus invasion of the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network during chronic osteomyelitis. Nanomedicine 21: 102039. DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2019.102039.

    Masters EA, Trombetta RP, de Mesy Bentley KL, Boyce BF, Gill AL, Gill SR, Nishitani K, Ishikawa M, Morita Y, Ito H, Bello-Irizarry SL, Ninomiya M, Brodell JD, Lee CC, Hao SP, Oh I, Xie C, Awad HA, Daiss JL, Owen JR, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G (2019) Evolving concepts in bone infection: redefining “biofilm”, “acute vs. chronic osteomyelitis”, “the immune proteome” and “local antibiotic therapy”. Bone Research 7: 20.

    MacDonald A, Brodell JD Jr, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM, Oh I (2019) Evidence of differential microbiomes in healing versus non-healing diabetic foot ulcers prior to and following foot salvage therapy. J Orthop Res 37: 1596-1603.

    Moriarty TF, Harris LG, Mooney RA, Riool M, Zaat SAJ, Wenke JC, Moter A, Richards RG, Schaer TP, Alt V, Montali A, Liu J, Busscher HJ, Grainger DW, Zeiter S (2019) Recommendations for design and conduct of preclinical in vivo studies of orthopedic device-related infection. J Orthop Res 37: 271-287.

    Trombetta RP, Ninomiya MJ, El-Atawneh IM, Knapp EK, de Mesy Bentley KL, Dunman PM, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2019) Calcium phosphate spacers for the local delivery of sitafloxacin and rifampin to treat orthopedic infections: efficacy and proof of concept in a mouse model of single-stage revision of device-associated osteomyelitis. Pharmaceutics 11. pii: E94. DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics11020094.

  • 2018

    Childs S, McVicker Z, Trombetta R, Awad H, Elfar J, Giordano B (2018) Patient-specific 3-dimensional modeling and its use for preoperative counseling of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Orthop J Sports Med 6: 2325967118794645. DOI: 10.1177/2325967118794645.

    de Mesy Bentley KL, MacDonald A, Schwarz EM, Oh I (2018) Chronic osteomyelitis with Staphylococcus aureus deformation in submicron canaliculi of osteocytes: a case report. JBJS Case Connect 8: e8. DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.CC.17.00154.

    Farnsworth CW, Schott EM, Benvie A, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Gill SR, Zuscik MJ, Mooney RA (2018) Exacerbated S. aureus foot infections in obese/diabetic mice are associated with impaired germinal center reactions, Ig class-switching, and humoral immunity. J Immunol 201: 560-572.

    Farnsworth CW, Schott EM, Benvie AM, Zukoski J, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Gill SR, Zuscik MJ, Mooney RA (2018) Obesity/type 2 diabetes increases inflammation, periosteal reactive bone formation, and osteolysis during Staphylococcus aureus implant-associated bone infection. J Orthop Res 36: 1614-1623.

    Oh I, Muthukrishnan G, Ninomiya MJ, Brodell JD, Jr., Smith BL, Lee CL, Gill SR, Beck CA, Schwarz EM, Daiss JL (2018) Tracking anti-Staphylococcus aureus antibodies produced in vivo and ex vivo during foot salvage therapy for diabetic foot infections reveals prognostic insights and evidence of diversified humoral immunity. Infect Immun 86. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00629-18.

    Ricciardi BF, Muthukrishnan G, Masters E, Ninomiya M, Lee CC, Schwarz EM (2018) Staphylococcus aureus evasion of host immunity in the setting of prosthetic joint infection: biofilm and beyond. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 11: 389-400.

    Trombetta RP, Dunman PM, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2018) A high-throughput screening approach to repurpose FDA-approved drugs for bactericidal applications against Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants. mSphere 3. pii: e00422. DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00422-18.

    Vella JB, Trombetta RP, Hoffman MD, Inzana J, Awad H, Benoit DSW (2018) Three dimensional printed calcium phosphate and poly(caprolactone) composites with improved mechanical properties and preserved microstructure. J Biomed Mater Res A 106: 663-672.

    Yokogawa N, Ishikawa M, Nishitani K, Beck CA, Tsuchiya H, Mesfin A, Kates SL, Daiss JL, Xie C, Schwarz EM (2018) Immunotherapy synergizes with debridement and antibiotic therapy in a murine 1-stage exchange model of MRSA implant-associated osteomyelitis. J Orthop Res 36: 1590-1598.

  • 2017

    de Mesy Bentley KL, Trombetta R, Nishitani K, Bello-Irizarry SN, Ninomiya M, Zhang L, Chung HL, McGrath JL, Daiss JL, Awad HA, Kates SL, Schwarz EM (2017) Evidence of Staphylococcus aureus deformation, proliferation, and migration in canaliculi of live cortical bone in murine models of osteomyelitis. J Bone Miner Res 32: 985-990.

    Farnsworth CW, Schott EM, Jensen SE, Zukoski J, Benvie A, Refaai MA, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Zuscik MJ, Gill SR, Mooney RA (2017) Adaptive upregulation of Clumping factor A (ClfA) by S. aureus in the obese, type 2 diabetic host mediates increased virulence. Infect Immun 85: e01005-01016. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01005-16.

    Moriarty TF, Kuehl R, Coenye T, Metsemakers WJ, Morgenstern M, Schwarz EM, Riool M, Zaat SAJ, Khana N, Kates SL, Richards RG (2017) Orthopaedic device-related infection: current and future interventions for improved prevention and treatment. EFORT Open Rev 1: 89-99.

    Moriarty TF, Schmid T, Post V, Samara E, Kates S, Schwarz EM, Zeiter S, Richards RG (2017) A large animal model for a failed two-stage revision of intramedullary nail-related infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Eur Cell Mater 34: 83-98.

    Peng J, Ren Y, He W, Li Z, Yang J, Liu Y, Zheng Z, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Xie C, Xu Y (2017) Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with post-traumatic osteomyelitis of limb fractures in southwest china: a hospital-based study. J Bone Jt Infect 2: 149-153.

    Trombetta RP, Inzana JA, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2017) 3D printing of calcium phosphate ceramics for bone tissue engineering and drug delivery. Ann Biomed Eng 45: 23-44.

  • 2016

    Inzana JA, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2016) Biomaterials approaches to treating implant-associated osteomyelitis. Biomaterials 81: 58-71.

    Morgenstern M, Erichsen C, Hackl S, Post V, Moriarty F, Hungerer S, Richards RG, Kates SL (2016a) Antibiotic resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci in an international cohort of surgeons: a prospective point-prevalence study. PLoS One 11: e0148437. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148437.

    Morgenstern M, Erichsen C, von Rüden M, Militz M, Kates SL, Moriarty TF, Hungerer S (2016b) Staphylococcal orthopaedic device-related infections in older patients. Injury 47: 1427-1434.

    Moriarty TF, Kuehl R, Coenye T, Metsemakers WJ, Morgenstern M, Schwarz EM, AJ Zaat S, Riool M, Khana K, Kates SL, Richards RG (2016) Orthopaedic device related infection: current and future interventions for improved prevention and treatment. EFORT Open Rev 1: 89-99.

    Nishitani K, Bello-Irizarry SN, de Mesy Bentley K, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM (2016) The role of the immune system and bone cells in acute and chronic osteomyelitis. Osteoimmunology 2nd Ed, Chapter 16. Pp: 283-295.

  • 2015

    Farnsworth CW, Shehatou C, Maynard R, Nishitani K, Kates S, Daiss J, Schwarz E, Zuscik M, Mooney R (2015) A humoral immune defect distinguishes S. aureus infections in obesity and type 2 diabetes from type 1 diabetes. Infect Immun 83: 2264-2274.

    Inzana JA, Trombetta RP, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2015) 3D printed bioceramics for dual delivery of antibiotics to treat implant-associated bone infection. Eur Cell Mater 30: 232-247.

    Nishitani K, Beck CA, Rosenberg AF, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Daiss JL (2015) A diagnostic serum antibody test for patients with Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 473: 2735-2749.

    Nishitani K, Sutipornpalangkul W, de Mesy Bentley KL, Varrone JJ, Bello-Irizarry SN, Ito H, Matsuda S, Kates SL, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM (2015) Quantifying the natural history of biofilm formation in vivo during the establishment of chronic implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in mice to identify critical pathogen and host factors. J Orthop Res 33: 1311-1319.

  • 2014

    Aggarwal VK, Tischler EH, Lautenbach C, Williams GR Jr, Abboud JA, Altena M, Bradbury T, Calhoun J, Dennis D, Del Gaizo DJ, Font-Vizcarra L, Huotari K, Kates S, Koo KH, Mabry TM, Moucha CS, Palacio JC, Peel TN, Poolman RW, Robb WJ 3rd, Salvagno R, Seyler T, Skaliczki G, Vasarhelyi EM, Watters WC (2014a) Mitigation and education. J Orthop Res 32 Suppl 1: S16-25.

    Aggarwal VK, Tischler EH, Lautenbach C, Williams GR Jr, Abboud JA, Altena M, Bradbury TL, Calhoun JH, Dennis DA, Del Gaizo DJ, Font-Vizcarra L, Huotari K, Kates SL, Koo KH, Mabry TM, Moucha CS1, Palacio JC, Peel TN, Poolman RW, Robb WJ 3rd, Salvagno R, Seyler T, Skaliczki G, Vasarhelyi EM, Watters WC 3rd (2014b) Mitigation and education. J Arthroplasty 29:19-25.

    Inzana JA, Olvera D, Fuller SM, Kelly JP, Graeve OA, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2014) 3D printing of composite calcium phosphate and collagen scaffolds for bone regeneration. Biomaterials 35: 4026-4034.

    Inzana JA, Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Awad HA (2014) A novel murine model of established staphylococcal bone infection in the presence of a fracture fixation plate to study therapies utilizing antibiotic-laden spacers after revision surgery. Bone 72: 128-136.

    Reizner W, Hunter JG, O'Malley NT, Southgate RD, Schwarz EM, Kates SL (2014) A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. Eur Cell Mater 27:196-212.

    Schwarz EM, Kates SL, Alt V (2014) The 1st international consensus meeting on periprosthetic joint infection. J Orthop Res 32 Suppl 1: S1. DOI: 10.1002/jor.22542.

    Varrone JJ, de Mesy Bentley KL, Bello-Irizarry SN, Nishitani K, Mack S, Hunter JG, Kates SL, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM (2014) Passive immunization with anti-glucosaminidase monoclonal antibodies protects mice from implant-associated osteomyelitis by mediating opsonophagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus megaclusters. J Orthop Res 32: 1389-1396.

  • 2013

    Gedbjerg N, Larosa R, Hunter JG, Varrone JJ, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Daiss JL (2013) Anti-glucosaminidase IgG in sera as a biomarker of host immunity against Staphylococcus aureus in orthopaedic surgery patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am 95: e1711-1719.

    Hunter JG, Daiss JL, Kates SL, Schwarz EM (2013) Animal models for implant-associated osteomyelitis. Animal models for the study of human disease. Elsevier Inc.. pp: 419-433.

The pillars of the CPP Bone Infection

Host-pathogen interaction

Learn about how S. aureus adapts to the environment of an implant-associated infection.


Read about the development of new tools to assess implant-associated infections.


Explore how the CPP Bone Infection is running its surgical site prevention program.

Prophylaxis and treatment

Learn about treatment and prevention of implant-associated infections.


Explore the educational program of the CPP Bone Infection.


Read about the first international bone infection registry.

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